Teleological Argument and Fine-Tuning

QUESTION: Teleological Argument – Local Evidence for the Fine-Tuning, Part 2

ANSWER:

This list is continued from here...

quantity of dust formed in the ejecta of Population III supernovae
  • if too low: number and mass range of Population II stars will not be great enough for a life-support planet to form at the right time and place in the cosmos; Population II stars will not form soon enough after the appearance of Population III stars
  • if too high: Population II star formation will occur too soon and be too aggressive for a life-support planet to form at the right time and place in the cosmos
quantity and proximity of gamma-ray burst events relative to emerging solar nebula
  • if too few and too far: inadequate enrichment of solar nebula with copper, titanium, and zinc
  • if too many and too close: too much enrichment of solar nebula with copper and zinc; too much destruction of solar nebula
heat flow through the planet’s mantle from radiometric decay in planet’s core
  • if too low: mantle will be too viscous and, thus, mantle convection will not be vigorous enough to drive plate tectonics at the precise level to compensate for changes in star’s luminosity
  • if too high: mantle will not be viscous enough and, thus, mantle convection will be too vigorous resulting in too high of a level of plate tectonic activity to perfectly compensate for changes in star’s luminosity
water absorption by planet’s mantle
  • if too low: mantle will be too viscous and, thus, mantle convection will not be vigorous enough to drive plate tectonics at the precise level to compensate for changes in star’s luminosity
  • if too high: mantle will not be viscous enough and, thus, mantle convection will be too vigorous resulting in too high of a level of plate tectonic activity to perfectly compensate for changes in star’s luminosity
NOTES
Compliments of Steve J. Williams. Rendered with permission from the book, The Skeptics’ Guide to Eternal Bliss (2nd ed), Steve J. Williams, Lulu Press, 2009. All rights reserved in the original.

This list of local fine-tuning elements related to our solar system, planet, moon, and sun come from the following: R. E. Davies and R. H. Koch, “All the Observed Universe Has Contributed to Life,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 334 (1991), pp. 391-403.

Micheal H. Hart, “Habitable Zones About Main Sequence Stars,” Icarus, 37 (1979), pp. 351-357.

William R. Ward, “Comments on the Long-Term Stability of the Earth’s Oliquity,” Icarus, 50 (1982), pp. 444-448.

Carl D. Murray, “Seasoned Travellers,” Nature, 361 (1993), p. 586-587.

Jacques Laskar and P. Robutel, “The Chaotic Obliquity of the Planets,” Nature, 361 (1993), pp. 608-612.

Jacques Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, “Stabilization of the Earth’s Obliquity by the Moon,” Nature, 361 (1993), pp. 615-617.

H. E. Newsom and S. R. Taylor, “Geochemical Implications of the Formation of the Moon by a Single Giant Impact,” Nature, 338 (1989), pp. 29-34.

W. M. Kaula, “Venus: A Contrast in Evolution to Earth,” Science, 247 (1990), PP. 1191-1196.

Robert T. Rood and James S. Trefil, Are We Alone? The Possibility of Extraterrestrial Civilizations, (New York: Scribner’s Sons, 1983).

John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 510-575.

Don L. Anderson, “The Earth as a Planet: Paradigms and Paradoxes,” Science, 22 3 (1984), pp. 347-355.

I. H. Campbell and S. R. Taylor, “No Water, No Granite—No Oceans, No Continents,” Geophysical Research Letters, 10 (1983), pp. 1061-1064.

Brandon Carter, “The Anthropic Principle and Its Implications for Biological Evolution,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 310 (1983), pp. 352-363.

Allen H. Hammond, “The Uniqueness of the Earth’s Climate,” Science, 187 (1975), p. 245.

Owen B. Toon and Steve Olson, “The Warm Earth,” Science 85, October.(1985), pp. 50- 57.

George Gale, “The Anthropic Principle,” Scientific American, 245, No. 6 (1981), pp. 154-171.

Hugh Ross, Genesis One: A Scientific Perspective. (Pasadena, California: Reasons to Believe, 1983), pp. 6-7.

Ron Cottrell, Ron, The Remarkable Spaceship Earth. (Denver, Colorado: Accent Books, 1982).

D. Ter Harr, “On the Origin of the Solar System,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5 (1967), pp. 267-278.

George Greenstein, The Symbiotic Universe. (New York: William Morrow, 1988), pp. 68-97.

John M. Templeton, “God Reveals Himself in the Astronomical and in the Infinitesimal,” Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation, December 1984 (1984), pp. 196-198.

Michael H. Hart, “The Evolution of the Atmosphere of the Earth,” Icarus, 33 (1978), pp. 23-39.

Tobias Owen, Robert D. Cess, and V. Ramanathan, “Enhanced CO2 Greenhouse to Compensate for Reduced Solar Luminosity on Early Earth,” Nature, 277 (1979), pp. 640-641.

John Gribbin, “The Origin of Life: Earth’s Lucky Break,” Science Digest, May 1983 (1983), pp. 36-102.

P. J. E. Peebles and Joseph Silk, “A Cosmic Book of Phenomena,” Nature, 346 (1990), pp. 233-239.

Michael H. Hart, “Atmospheric Evolution, the Drake Equation, and DNA: Sparse Life in an Infinite Universe,” in Philosophical Cosmology and Philosophy, edited by John Leslie, (New York: Macmillan, 1990), pp. 256-266.

Stanley L. Jaki, God and the Cosmologists, (Washington, DC: Regnery Gateway, 1989), pp. 177-184.

R. Monastersky, p. “Speedy Spin Kept Early Earth From Freezing,” Science News, 143 (1993), p. 373.

The editors, “Our Friend Jove,” Discover. (July 1993) p. 15.

Jacques Laskar, “Large-Scale Chaos in the Solar System,” Astronomy and Astrophysics, 287 (1994), pp. 109-113.

Richard A. Kerr, “The Solar System’s New Diversity,” Science, 265 (1994), pp. 1360-1362.

Richard A. Kerr, “When Comparative Planetology Hit Its Target,” Science 265 (1994), p. 1361.

W. R. Kuhn, J. C. G. Walker, and H. G. Marshall, “The Effect on Earth’s Surface Temperature from Variations in Rotation Rate, Continent Formation, Solar Luminosity, and Carbon Dioxide,” Journal of Geophysical Research, 94 (1989), pp. 11,129-131,136.

Gregory S. Jenkins, Hal G. Marshall, and W. R. Kuhn, “Pre-Cambrian Climate: The Effects of Land Area and Earth’s Rotation Rate,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Series D, 98 (1993), pp. 8785-8791.

K. J. Zahnle and J. C. G. Walker, “A Constant Daylength During the Precambrian Era?” Precambrian Research, 37 (1987), pp. 95-105.

M. J. Newman and R. T. Rood, “Implications of the Solar Evolution for the Earth’s Early Atmosphere,” Science, 198 (1977), pages 1035-1037.

J. C. G. Walker and K. J. Zahnle, “Lunar Nodal Tides and Distance to the Moon During the Precambrian,” Nature, 320 (1986), pp. 600-602.

J. F. Kasting and J. B. Pollack, “Effects of High CO2 Levels on Surface Temperatures and Atmospheric Oxidation State of the Early Earth,” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 1 (1984), pp. 403-428.

H. G. Marshall, J. C. G. Walker, and W. R. Kuhn, “Long Term Climate Change and the Geochemical Cycle of Carbon,” Journal of Geophysical Research, 93 (1988), pp. 791-801.

Pieter G. van Dokkum, et al, “A High Merger Fraction in the Rich Cluster MS 1054-03 at z = 0.83: Direct Evidence for Hierarchical Formation of Massive Galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 520 (1999), pp. L95-L98.

Anatoly Klypin, Andrey V. Kravtsov, and Octavio Valenzuela, “Where Are the Missing Galactic Satellites?” Astrophysical Journal, 522 (1999), pp. 82-92.

Roland Buser, “The Formation and Early Evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy,” Science, 287 (2000), pp. 69-74.

Robert Irion, “A Crushing End for our Galaxy,” Science, 287 (2000), pp. 62-64.

D. M. Murphy, et al, “Influence of Sea Salt on Aerosol Radiative Properties in the Southern Ocean Marine Boundary Layer, Nature, 392 (1998), pp. 62-65.

Neil F. Comins, What If The Moon Didn’t Exist? (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), pp.2-8, 53-65.

Hugh Ross, “Lunar Origin Update,” Facts & Faith, v. 9, n. 1 (1995), pp. 1-3.

Jack J. Lissauer, “It’s Not Easy to Make the Moon,” Nature 389 (1997), pp. 327-328.

Sigeru Ida, Robin M. Canup, and Glen R. Stewart, “Lunar Accretion from an Impact-Generated Disk,” Nature 389 (1997), pp. 353-357.

Louis A. Codispoti, “The Limits to Growth,” Nature 387 (1997), pp. 237.

Kenneth H. Coale, “A Massive PhytoPlankton Bloom Induced by an Ecosystem-Scale Iron Fertilization Experiment in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean,” Nature 383 (1996), pp. 495-499.

P. Jonathan Patchett, “Scum of the Earth After All,” Nature 382 (1996), p. 758.

William R. Ward, “Comments on the Long-Term Stability of the Earth’s Oliquity,” Icarus 50 (1982), pp. 444-448.

Carl D. Murray, “Seasoned Travellers,” Nature, 361 (1993), pp. 586-587.

Jacques Laskar and P. Robutel, “The Chaotic Obliquity of the Planets,” Nature, 361 (1993), pp. 608-612.

Jacques Laskar, F. Joutel, and P. Robutel, “Stabilization of the Earth’s Obliquity by the Moon,” Nature, 361 (1993), pp. 615-617.

S. H. Rhie, et al, “On Planetary Companions to the MACHO 98-BLG-35 Microlens Star,” Astrophysical Journal, 533 (2000), pp. 378-391.

Ron Cowen, “Less Massive Than Saturn?” Science News, 157 (2000), pp. 220-222.

Hugh Ross, “Planet Quest—A Recent Success,” Connections, vol. 2, no. 2 (2000), pp. 1-2.

G. Gonzalez, “Spectroscopic Analyses of the Parent Stars of Extrasolar Planetary Systems,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 334 (1998): pp. 221-238.

Guillermo Gonzalez, “New Planets Hurt Chances for ETI,” Facts & Faith, vol. 12, no. 4 (1998), pp. 2-4.

The editors, “The Vacant Interstellar Spaces,” Discover, April 1996, pp. 18, 21.

Theodore P. Snow and Adolf N. Witt, “The Interstellar Carbon Budget and the Role of Carbon in Dust and Large Molecules,” Science 270 (1995), pp. 1455-1457.

Richard A. Kerr, “Revised Galileo Data Leave Jupiter Mysteriously Dry,” Science, 272 (1996), pp. 814-815.

Adam Burrows and Jonathan Lumine, “Astronomical Questions of Origin and Survival,” Nature 378 (1995), p. 333.

George Wetherill, “How Special Is Jupiter?” Nature 373 (1995), p. 470.

B. Zuckerman, T. Forveille, and J,. H. Kastner, “Inhibition of Giant-Planet Formation by Rapid Gas Depletion Around Young Stars,” Nature 373 (1995), pp. 494-496.

Hugh Ross, “ Our Solar System, the Heavyweight Champion,” Facts & Faith, v. 10, n. 2 (1996), p. 6.

Guillermo Gonzalez, “Solar System Bounces in the Right Range for Life,” Facts & Faith, v. 11, n. 1 (1997), pp. 4-5.

C. R. Brackenridge, “Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Effects of a Late Quaternary-Age Supernova,” Icarus, vol. 46 (1981), pp. 81-93.

M. A. Ruderman, “Possible Consequences of Nearby Supernova Explosions for Atmospheric Ozone and Terrestrial Life,” Science, vol. 184 (1974), pp. 1079-1081.

G. C. Reid et al, “Effects of Intense Stratospheric Ionization Events,” Nature, vol. 275 (1978), pp. 489-492.

B. Edvardsson et al, “The Chemical Evolution of the Galactic Disk. I. Analysis and Results,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 275 (1993), pp. 101-152.

J. J. Maltese et al, “Periodic Modulation of the Oort Cloud Comet Flux by the Adiabatically Changed Galactic Tide,” Icarus, vol. 116 (1995), pp 255-268.

Paul R. Renne, et al, “Synchrony and Causal Relations Between Permian-Triassic Boundary Crisis and Siberian Flood Volcanism,” Science, 269 (1995), pp. 1413-1416.

Hugh Ross, “Sparks in the Deep Freeze,” Facts & Faith, v. 11, n. 1 (1997), pp. 5-6.

T. R. Gabella and T. Oka, “Detectiion of H3+ in Interstellar Space,” Nature, 384 (1996), pp. 334-335.

Hugh Ross, “Let There Be Air,” Facts & Faith, v. 10, n. 3 (1996), pp. 2-3.

Davud J. Des Marais, Harold Strauss, Roger E. Summons, and J. M. Hayes, “Carbon Isotope Evidence for the Stepwise Oxidation of the Proterozoic Environment Nature, 359 (1992), pp. 605-609.

Donald E. Canfield and Andreas Teske, “Late Proterozoic Rise in Atmospheric Oxygen Concentration Inferred from Phylogenetic and Sulphur-Isotope Studies,” Nature 382 (1996), pp. 127-132.

Alan Cromer, UnCommon Sense: The Heretical Nature of Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 175-176.

Hugh Ross, “Drifting Giants Highlights Jupiter’s Uniqueness,” Facts & Faith, v. 10, n. 4 (1996), p. 4.

Hugh Ross, “New Planets Raise Unwarranted Speculation About Life,” Facts & Faith, volume 10, number 1 (1996), pp. 1-3.

Hugh Ross, “Jupiter’s Stability,” Facts & Faith, volume 8, number 3 (1994), pp. 1-2.

Christopher Chyba, “Life BeyondMars,” Nature, 382 (1996), p. 577.

E. Skindrad, “Where Is Everybody?” Science News, 150 (1996), p. 153.

Stephen H. Schneider, Laboratory Earth: The Planetary Gamble We Can’t Afford to Lose (New York: Basic Books, 1997), pp. 25, 29-30.

Guillermo Gonzalez, “Mini-Comets Write New Chapter in Earth-Science,” Facts & Faith, v. 11, n. 3 (197), pp. 6-7.

Miguel A. Gońi, Kathleen C. Ruttenberg, and Timothy I. Eglinton, “Sources and Contribution of Terrigenous Organic Carbon to Surface Sediments in the Gulf of Mexico,” Nature, 389 (1997), pp. 275-278.

Paul G. Falkowski, “Evolution of the Nitrogen Cycle and Its Influence on the Biological Sequestration of CO2 in the Ocean,” Nature, 387 (1997), pp. 272-274.

John S. Lewis, Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System (San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1995), pp. 485-492.

Hugh Ross, “Earth Design Update: Ozone Times Three,” Facts & Faith, v. 11, n. 4 (1997), pp. 4-5.

W. L. Chameides, P. S. Kasibhatla, J. Yienger, and H. Levy II, “Growth of Continental-Scale Metro-Agro-Plexes, Regional Ozone Pollution, and World Food Production,” Science, 264 (1994), pp. 74-77.

Paul Crutzen and Mark Lawrence, “Ozone Clouds Over the Atlantic,” Nature, 388 (1997), p. 625.

Paul Crutzen, “Mesospheric Mysteries,” Science, 277 (1997), pp. 1951-1952.

M. E. Summers, et al, “Implications of Satellite OH Observations for Middle Atmospheric H2O and Ozone,” Science, 277 (1997), pp. 1967-1970.

K. Suhre, et al, “Ozone-Rich Transients in the Upper Equatorial Atlantic Troposphere,” Nature, 388 (1997), pp. 661-663.

L. A. Frank, J. B. Sigwarth, and J. D. Craven, “On the Influx of Small Comets into the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere. II. Interpretation,” Geophysical Research Letters, 13 (1986), pp. 307-310.

David Deming, “Extraterrestrial Accretion and Earth’s Climate,” Geology, in press.

T. A. Muller and G. J. MacDonald, “Simultaneous Presence of Orbital Inclination and Eccentricity in Prozy Climate Records from Ocean Drilling Program Site 806,” Geology, 25 (1997), pp. 3-6.

Clare E. Reimers, “Feedback from the Sea Floor,” Nature, 391 (1998), pp. 536-537.

Hilairy E. Hartnett, Richard G. Keil, John I. Hedges, and Allan H. Devol, “Influence of Oxygen Exposure Time on Organic Carbon Preservation in Continental Margin Sediments,” Nature, 391 (1998), pp. 572-574.

Tina Hesman, “Greenhouse Gassed: Carbon Dioxide Spells Indigestion for Food Chains,” Science News, 157 (2000), pp. 200-202.

Claire E. Reimers, “Feedbacks from the Sea Floor,” Nature, 391 (1998), pp. 536-537.

S. Sahijpal, et al, “A Stellar Origin for the Short-Lived Nuclides in the Early Solar System,” Nature, 391 (1998), pp. 559-561.

Stuart Ross Taylor, Destiny or Chance: Our Solar System and Its Place in the Cosmos (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Peter D. Ward and Donald Brownlee, Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2000).

Dean L. Overman, A Case Against Accident and Self-Organization (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), pp. 31-150.

Michael J. Denton, Nature’s Destiny (New York: The Free Press, 1998), pp. 1-208.

D. N. C. Lin, P. Bodenheimer, and D. C. Richardson, “Orbital Migration of the Planetary Companion of 51 Pegasi to Its Present Location,” Nature, 380 (1996), pp. 606-607.

Stuart J. Weidenschilling and Francesco Mazari, “Gravitational Scattering as a Possible Origin or Giant Planets at Small Stellar Distances,” Nature, 384 (1996), pp. 619-621.

Frederic A. Rasio and Eric B. Ford, “Dynamical Instabilities and the Formation of Extrasolar Planetary Systems,” Science, 274 (1996), pp. 954-956.

N. Murray, B. Hansen, M. Holman, and S. Tremaine, “Migrating Planets,” Science, 279 (1998), pp. 69-72.

Alister W. Graham, “An Investigation into the Prominence of Spiral Galaxy Bulges,” Astronomical Journal, 121 (2001), pp. 820-840.

Fred C. Adams, “Constraints on the Birth Aggregate of the Solar System, Icarus (2001), in press.

G. Bertelli and E. Nasi, “Star Formation History in the Solar Vicinity,” Astronomical Journal, 121 (2001), pp. 1013-1023.

Nigel D. Marsh and Henrik Svensmark, “Low Cloud Properties Influenced by Cosmic Rays,” Physical Review Letters, 85 (2000), pp. 5004-5007.

Gerhard Wagner, et al, “Some Results Relevant to the Discussion of a Possible Link Between Cosmic Rays and the Earth’s Climate,” Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (2001), pp. 3381-3387.

E. Pallé and C. J. Butler, “The Influence of Cosmic Rays on Terrestrial Clouds and Global Warming.” Astronomy & Geophysics, 41 (2000), pp. 4.19-4.22.

B. Gladman and M. J. Duncan, “Fates of Minor Bodies in the Outer Solar System,” Astronomical Journal, 100 (1990), pp. 1680-1693.

S. Alan Stern and Paul R. Weissman, “Rapid Collisional Evolution of Comets During the Formation of the Oort Cloud,” Nature, 409 (2001), pp. 589-591.

Christopher P. McKay and Margarita M. Marinova, “The Physics, Biology, and Environmental Ethics of Making Mars Habitable,” Astrobiology, 1 (2001), pp. 89-109.

Michael Loewenstein, “The Contribution of Population III to the Enrichment and Preheating of the Intracluster Medium,” Astrophysical Journal, 557 (2001), pp. 573-577.

Takayoshi Nakamura, et al, “Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Hypernovae,” Astrophysical Journal, 555 (2001), pp. 880-899.

Kazuyuki Omukai and Francesco Palla, “On the Formation of Massive Primordial Stars,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 561 (2001), pp. L55-L58.

Renu Malhotra, Matthew Holman, and Takashi Ito, “Chaos and Stability of the Solar System,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98 (2001), pp. 12342-12343.

Takashi Ito and Kujotaka Tanikawa, “Stability and Instability of the Terrestrial Protoplanet System and Their Possible Roles in the Final Stage of Planet Formation,” Icarus, 139 (1999), pp. 336-349.

Li-Chin Yeh and Ing-Guey Jiang, “Orbital Evolution of Scattered Planets,” Astrophysical Journal, 561 (2001), pp. 364-371.

M. Massarotti, A. Iovino, and A. Buzzoni, “Dust Absorption and the Cosmic Ultraviolet Flux Density,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 559 (2001), pp. L105-L108.

Kentaro Nagamine, Masataka Fukugita, Renyue Cen, and Jeremiah P. Ostriker, “Star Formation History and Stellar Metallicity Distribution in a Cold Dark Matter Universe,” Astrophysical Journal, 558 (2001), pp. 497-504.

Revyue Cen, “Why Are There Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies?” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 549 (2001), pp. L195-L198.

Martin Elvis, Massimo Marengo, and Margarita Karovska, “Smoking Quasars: A New Source for Cosmic Dust,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 567 (2002), pp. L107-L110.

N, Massarotti. A. Iovino, and A. Buzzoni, “Dust Absorption and the Cosmic Ultraviolet Flux Density,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 559 (2001), pp. L105-L108.

James Wookey, J. Michael Kendall, and Guilhem Barruol, “Mid-Mantle Deformation Inferred from Seismic Anistropy,” Nature, 415 (2002), pp. 777-780.

Karen M. Fischer, “flow and Fabric Deep Down,” Nature, 415 (2002), pp. 745-748.

Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, Dave A. Yuen, and Joy Branlund, “The Initiation of Subduction: Criticality by Addition of Water?” Science, 294 (2001), pp. 578-580.

Leon Barry, George C. Craig, and John Thuburn, “Poleward Heat Transport by the Atmospheric Heat Engine,” Nature, 415 (2002), pp. 774-777.

Akira Kouchi, et al, “Rapid Growth of Asteroids Owing to Very Sticky Interstellar Organic Grains,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 566 (2002), pp. L121-L124.

Christian J. Bjerrum and Donald E. Canfield, “Ocean Productivity Before About 1.9 Gyr Ago Limited by Phosphorus Adsorption onto Iron Oxides,” Nature, 417 (2002), pp. 159-162.

David E. Harker and Steven J. Desch, “Annealing of Silicate Dust by Nebular Shocks at 10 AU,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 565 (2002), pp. L109-L112.

Chadwick A. Trujillo, David C. Jewitt, and Jane X. Luu, “Properties of the Trans-Neptunian Belt: Statistics from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Survey,” Astronomical Journal, 122 (2001), pp. 457-473.

W. A. Dziembowski, P. R. Goode, and J. Schou, “Does the Sun Shrink with Increasing Magnetic Activity?” Astrophysical Journal, 553 (2001), pp. 897-904.

Anthony Aguirre, et al, “Metal Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium in Cosmological Simulations,” Astrophysical Journal, 561 (2001), pp. 521-549.

Ron Cowen, “Cosmic Remodeling: Superwinds Star in Early Universe,” Science News, 161 (2002), p. 244.

Tom Abel, Greg L. Byran, and Michael L. Norman, “The Formation of the First Star in the Universe,” Science, 295 (2002), pp. 93-98.

Robert Irion, “The Quest for Population III,” Science, 295 (2002), pp. 66-67.

Y.-Z. Qian, W. L. W. Sargent, and G. J. Wasserburg, “The Prompt Inventory from Very Massive Stars and Elemental Abundances in Lya Systems,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 569 (2002), pp. L61-L64.

Kazuyuki Omukai and Francesco Palla, “On the Formation of Massive Primordial Stars,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 561 (2001), pp. L55-L58.

A. Heger and S. E. Woosley, “The Nucleosynthetic Signature of Population III,” Astrophysical Journal, 567 (2002), pp. 532-543.

Michael Loewenstein, “The Contribution of Population III to the Enrichment and Preheating of the Intracluster Medium,” Astrophysical Journal, 557 (2001), pp. 573-577.

Takayoshi Makamura, et al, “Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Hypernovae,” Astrophysical Journal, 555 (2001), pp. 880-899.

Steve Dawson, et al, “A Galactic Wind at z = 5.190,” Astrophysical Journal, 570 (2002), pp. 92-99.

John E. Norris, et al, “Extremely Metal-Poor Stars. IX. CS 22949-037 and the Role of Hypernovae,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 569 (2002), pp. L107-110.

Daniel R. Bond, “Electrode-Reducing Microorganisms That Harvest Energy from Marine Sediments,” Science, 295 (2002), pp. 483-485.

E. L. Martin, et al, “Four Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus Star-Forming Region,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 561 (2001), pp. L195-L198.

Tom Fenchel, “Marine Bugs and Carbon Flow,” Science, 292 (2001), pp. 2444-2445.

Zbigniew S. Kolber, et al, “Contribution of Aerobic Photoheterotrophic Bacteria to the Carbon Cycle in the Ocean,” Science, 292 (2001), pp. 2492-2495.

Martin J. Rees. “How the Cosmic Dark Age Ended,” Science, 295 (2002), pp. 51-53.

Jay Melosh, “A New Model Moon,” Nature, 412 (2001), pp. 694-695.

Robin M. Canup and Erik Asphaug, “Origin of the Moon in a Giant Impact Near the End of the Earth’s Formation,” Nature, 412 (2001), pp. 708-712.

M. Elvis G. Risaliti, and G. Zamorani, “Most Supermassive Black Holes Must Be Rapidly Rotating,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 565 (2002), pp. L75-L77.

M. Pätzold and H. Rauer, “Where Are the Massive Close-In Extrasolar Planets?” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 568 (2002), pp. L117-L120.

Shay Zucker and Tsevi Mazeh, “On the Mass-Period Correlation of the Extrasolar Planets,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 568 (2002), pp. L113-L116.

B. S. Gaudi, et al, “Microlensing Constraints on the Frequency of Jupiter-Mass Companions: Analysis of 5 Years of Planet Photometry,” Astrophysical Journal, 566 (2002), pp. 463-499.

Motohiko Murakami, et al, “Water in Earth’s Lower Mantle,” Science, 295 (2002), pp. 1885-1887.

Lee Hartmann, Javier Ballesteros-Paredes, and Edwin A. Bergin, “Rapid Formation of Molecular Clouds and Stars in the Solar Neighborhood,” Astrophysical Journal, 562 (2001), pp. 852-868.

Renyue Cen, “Why Are There Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies?” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 549 (2001), pp. L195-L198.

Thilo Kranz, Adrianne Slyz, and Hans-Walter Rix, “Probing for Dark Matter Within Spiral Galaxy Disks,” Astrophysical Journal, 562 (2001), pp. 164-178.

Francesco Gertola, “Putting Galaxies on the Scale,” Science, 295 (2002), pp. 283-284.

David R. Soderblom, Burton F. jones, and Debra Fischer, “Rotational Studies of Late-Type Stars. VII. M34 (NGC 1039) and the Evolution of Angular Momentum and Activity in Young Solar-Type Stars,” Astrophysical Journal, 563 (2001), pp. 334-340.

John Scalo and J. Craig Wheeler, “Astrophysical and Astrobiological Implications of Gamma-Ray Burst Properties,” Astrophysical Journal, 566 (2002), pp. 723-737.

Jan van Paradijs, “From Gamma-Ray Bursts to Supernovae,” Science, 286 (1999), pp. 693-695. J. S. Bloom, S. R. Kulkarni, and S. G. Djorgovski, “The Observed Offset Distribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Their Host Galaxies: A Robust Clue to the Nature of the Progenitors,” Astronomical Journal, 123 (2002), pp. 1111-1148.

Colin D. O’Dowd, et al, “Atmospheric Particles From Organic Vapours,” Nature, 416 (2002), p. 497.

E. W. Cliver and A. G. Ling, “22 Year Patterns in the Relationship of Sunspot Number and Tilt Angle to Cosmic-Ray Intensity,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 551 (2001), pp. L189-L192.

Kentaro Nagamine, Jeremiah P. Ostriker, and Renyue Cen, “Cosmic Mach Number as a Function of Overdensity and Galaxy Age,” Astrophysical Journal, 553 (2001), pp. 513-527.

John E. Gizis, I. Neill Reid, and Suzanne L. Hawley, “The Palomar/MSU Nearby Star Spectroscopic Survey. III. Chromospheric Activity, M Dwarf Ages, and the Local Star Formation History,” Astronomical Journal, 123 (2002), pp. 3356-3369.

Jason Pruet, Rebecca Surman, and Gail C. McLaughlin, “On the Contribution of Gamma-Ray Bursts to the Galactic Inventory of Some Intermediate-Mass Nuclei,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 602 (2004), pp. L101-L104.

V. A. Dogiel , E. Schönfelder, and A. W. Strong, “The Cosmic Ray Luminosity of the Galaxy,” Astrophysical Journal Letters, 572 (2002), pp. L157-L159.

Ken Croswell, The Alchemy of the Heavens (New York: Anchor Books, 1995).

John Emsley, The Elements, third edition (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1998), pp. 24, 40, 56, 58, 60, 62, 78, 102, 106, 122, 130, 138, 152, 160, 188, 198, 214, 222, 230.

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